The financial support of several organisations is gratefully acknowledged:

- ESRC for research grant RES-000-22-2420 Migration, Economic Opportunity and the Railroads: Movement of Heavy Industrial Workers in the North-East USA 1850-1900

- The predecessor to the ESRC - the Social Science Research Council - for PhD. funding in the distant past, since data from that project has been utilised here

- The Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, for funding a Local History Grant through the Lackawanna Historical Society, Scranton, PA. This project is contributing detailed information on mining occupations to the present study

- The University of Portsmouth provided research funds to support data entry from the Baltimore City directory for 1860

Further assistance was provided by the following:

- Professor William G. Thomas, Department of History and the students, staff, faculty, and directors at the Center for Digital Research in the Humanities, all at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln who originally provided the raw digitised data file for the Baltimore and Ohio RR 1857 payroll from which a substantial number of railroad job titles were drawn